I shwar Chandra Vidyasagar was a legendary educationist, a Sanskrit scholar and a social reformer who not only changed the Bengali alphabet and type but also challenged Hindu orthodoxy by playing a pivotal role in passing the Widow Remarriage Act. Standing tall against the conservative power centres of Hindu society, Vidyasagar was a man who was way ahead of his times.
In light of the desecration of his statue, it is time to remind ourselves about this visionary of modern Indian history. Born on 26 September into a poor Brahmin family in Birsing village of Midnapore district, West Bengal, Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay was only six-years-old when he was sent to be educated in Kolkata. He was no ordinary student, passing each exam with flying colours, while also finding a way to support himself financially as a tutor for kids in another wealthy household.
With limited means, he continued his education at the Sanskrit College of Kolkata, where he studied for 12 years. He then picked up a law degree and went on to join Fort William College as the head of their Sanskrit Department. After five years, inVidyasagar joined the Sanskrit College as principal. He was also part of a larger social movement called the Bengal Renaissance, in the footsteps of another social reformer, Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
It was in that Vidyasagar began his campaign for widow remarriage. The 19th century was a particularly terrible time for women, especially for pre-pubescent girls from poor families, who were forced into marriages with older men. Once their husbands died, they had to spend the rest of their lives wearing white saris, give up all material comforts and live a stigmatised and isolated existence.
Seeing this unprogressive practice play out before his own eyes, Vidyasagar was determined to stamp it out. Inhe began writing against the practice for Tattvabodhini Patrika, a progressive journal.
According to Live History Indiathe translation reads:. The following year, he filed a petition before the government of the day, seeking legislation that would allow widow remarriage. Although support for his campaign came from influential figures like the Maharaja of Bardhaman Mahtabchand Bahadur, a lot of back lash came from powerful conservative groups within Hindu society. However, his sustained efforts, alongside fellow social reformers finally resulted in the passing of the Widow Remarriage Act on 26 July Despite their success in passing a law, the real challenge was getting society to accept widow remarriage.
Ishwar Chandra took the challenge and performed the first widow remarriage in Kolkata on 7 December on his own dime.
For Ishwar Chandra, who sought to abolish child marriage, this series of events came as a blow. By the time Vidyasagar attacked the practice of polygamy among high-caste Hindus in the s, the revolt of had created an unbridgeable chasm between Indians and their colonial masters. Disillusioned by the lack of tangible public support, he spent the last two decades with the Santhal tribes in present-day Jharkhand.
There, he opened the first school for tribal girls. It was a mere four months before his passing in Marchwhen the British India administration passed the Age of Consent Act, which legally abolished child marriage, following the efforts of other social reformers who took their cue from the likes of Vidyasagar and Ram Mohan Roy.
The scholar passed away on 29 July What Vidyasagar did so well is to advance the cause of reform while remaining true to an ancient intellectual spirit. His legacy lives on, particularly in West Bengal. Today, his name is attached to a university, a bridge and even a hall in IIT Kharagpur. More than anything else, however, his real legacy lies in the fact that his ideas remain relevant today. We at The Better India want to showcase everything that is working in this country.
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He lived in the house of a family friend Bhagabat Charan in the Burrabazar area. Here, he opened up admissions to students from other castes, besides Brahmin and Vaidya. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Spread Positivity : Share this story with friends. Click here if you want to make a contribution of your choice instead.Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1.How to turn off stabilitrak on 2014 silverado
Marriage of Hindu widows legalised 3. Guardianship of children of deceased husband on the remarriage of his widow 4. Nothing in this Act to render any childless widow capable of inheriting 5. Saving of rights of widow marrying, except as provided in sections 2 to 4 6. Ceremonies constituting valid marriage to have same effect on widows marriage 7. Consent to remarriage of minor widow 15 of Whereas it is known that, by the law as administered in the Civil Courts established in the territories in the possession and under the Government of the East India Company, Hindu widows with certain exceptions are held to be, by reason of their having been once married, incapable of contracting a second valid marriage, and the offspring of such widows by any second marriage are held to be illegitimate and incapable of inheriting property.
And whereas many Hindus believe that this imputed legal incapacity, although it is in accordance with established custom is not in accordance with a true interpretation of the precepts of their religion, and desire that the civil law administered by the Courts of justice shall no longer prevent those Hindus who may be so minded from adopting a different custom, in accordance with the dictates of their own consciences.
And whereas it is just to relieve all such Hindus from this legal incapacity of which they complain, and the removal of all legal obstacles to the marriage of Hindu widows will tend to the promotion of good morals and to the public welfare; It is enacted as follows:.
Provided that, when the said children have no property of their own sufficient for their support and proper education whilst minors, no such appointment shall be made otherwise than with the consent of the mother unless the proposed guardian shall have given security for the support and proper education of the children whilst minors. Punishment for abetting marriage made contrary to this section. All persons knowingly abetting a marriage made contrary to the provisions of this section shall be liable to imprisonment for any term not exceeding one year or to fine or to both.
Effect of such marriage. And all marriages made contrary to the provisions of this section may be declared void by a Court of law:. Provided that, in any question regarding the validity of a marriage made contrary to the provisions of this section, such consent as is aforesaid shall be presumed until the contrary is proved, and that no such marriage shall be declared void after it has been consummated.
Consent to remarriage of major widow. In the case of a widow who is of full age, or whose marriage has been consummated, her own consent shall be sufficient consent to constitute her remarriage lawful and valid. Friday, 05, Mar, Search Now. Category SideBar. Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, No marriage contracted between Hindus shall be invalid, and the issue of no such marriage shall be illegitimate, by reason of the woman having been previously married or betrothed to another person who was dead at the time of such marriage, any custom and any interpretation of Hindu law to the contrary notwithstanding.
Rights of widow in deceased husbands property to cease on her marriage. All rights and interests which any widow may have in her deceased husbands property by way of maintenance, or by inheritance to her husband or to his lineal successors, or by virtue of any will or testamentary disposition conferring upon her, without express permission to remarry, only a limited interest in such property, with no power of alienating the same, shall upon her remarriage cease and determine as if she had then died; and the next heirs of her deceased husband, or other persons entitled to the property on her death, shall thereupon succeed to the same.
Guardianship of children of deceased husband on the remarriage of his widow. Nothing in this Act to render any childless widow capable of inheriting. Nothing in this Act contained shall be construed to render any widow who, at the time of the death of any person leaving any property, is a childless widow, capable of inheriting the whole or any share of such property, if before the passing of this Act, she would have been incapable of inheriting the same by reason of her being a childless widow.
Saving of rights of widow marrying, except as provided in sections 2 to 4. Except as in the three preceding sections is provided, a widow shall not, by reason of her remarriage forfeit any property or any right to which she would otherwise be entitled; and every widow who has remarried shall have the same rights of inheritance as she would have had, had such marriage been her first marriage.
Ceremonies constituting valid marriage to have same effect on widows marriage. Whatever words spoken, ceremonies performed or engagements made on the marriage of a Hindu female who has not been previously married, are sufficient to constitute a valid marriage shall have the same effect if spoken, performed or made on the marriage of a Hindu widow; and no marriage shall be declared invalid on the ground that such words, ceremonies or engagements are inapplicable to the case of a widow.
Consent to remarriage of minor widow. If the widow remarrying is a minor whose marriage has not been consummated, she shall not remarry without the consent of her father, or if she has no father, of her grandfather, or if she has no such grandfather, of her mother, or failing all these, of her elder brother, or failing also brothers, of her not male relative.
And all marriages made contrary to the provisions of this section may be declared void by a Court of law: Proviso. Help us improve! Please suggest corrections.The rights of a widow have long been discriminated within a sorts of religion, class, caste, especially when it comes to her re-marriage. Also, they were referenced with conditions of her widowhood such as isolation, exclusion, non-participation in social events, etc. In short their condition is really heart-wrenching in India.
After being bereft of all kind of social and financial standings, inheritance laws for widows have aimed to support them through economic liberation. Though it had been a landmark decision but it deprived Hindu widows to get share in the property of deceased husband after re-marriage. It includes that, if she died then the subsequent heirs of her deceased husband or other person entitled to the property of her death shall thereupon succeed to the same.
Section 8 of The Hindu Succession Act, provides that the property of male Hindu dying intestate shall devolve upon the heirs being relatives laid out in Class I of the schedule. If, there is no heir of class I then upon the heirs being the relatives specified in class II of the schedule and so on. Whereas, Section 14 of the Hindu Succession Act, clearly states that any property possessed by a female Hindu, whether acquired before or after commencement of the Act, shall be held by her as full owner thereof and not as a limited owner, also the explanation of Section 14 1 clarifies that property includes both movable and immovable acquired by a female Hindu by inheritance or devise, or at a partition, or in lieu of maintenance or arrears of maintenance or by gift from any person, or by purchase or by prescription, or in any other manner whatsoever etc.
According to Section 4 of the Hindu Succession Act all existing laws whether in the shape of enactments or otherwise shall cease to apply to Hindus in so far as they are inconsistent with any of the provisions contained in this Act.
Therefore, it was held that Rukmini Debi succeeded to the properties left by her husband after the passing of the Succession Act cannot be divested of the said properties on her remarriage.
In Sanjay Purshottam Patnakar Vs. Section 4 of Hindu Succession Act,has overriding effect on all other enactments.Hindu Widow’s Remarriage Act, 1856 - Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar एक समाज सुधारक - Shivraj Vidrohi -
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. She can file suit for partition in civil court claiming her share. If partition of such property is not possible, the court can auction the properties to give her share to the woman. She can also seek for injunction to ensure that the property is not sold during the pendency of the suit. If property is sold without her consent she can add buyer as a party to the suit.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Powered by WordPress Bootstrap Themes.There was a time when in India women were considered as the door to hell. Women were suppressed in every aspect of human life. Even in the regime of East India Company this type of stereotyping continues but Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was against all types of rotten customs related to women.
He works hard to start the culture of widow remarriage in the country. The enactment of The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, was a major social reform to improve the condition of the widow in India.
Before this law, the custom of Sati was also abolished by the Lord William Bentinck in In some parts of India, the widows have to live life like a saint. They were not allowed to live like a common person. They were expected to lead a life of austerity and extremities like no makeup, no new clothes, no good food, a boycott from festivals and even scolding from all members of the family and society.
Widows had to wear a white Saree of coarse material. The widow was considered as the unlucky person for the whole family. Remarriage was not permitted even if the widow was a child and the marriage was not even consummated.
This custom was mainly practiced in rich Hindu families. One surprising fact is that; Widow remarriage was prevalent among people of the lower class or poor. The act also provided legal safeguards and protection to men who married widows.
As per The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, ; the widow was authorised to forfeit any inheritance that she may have obtained from her deceased husband.
The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, also provided all the rights and inheritances to all the windows that they have had at the time of her first marriage. After the enactment of the Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, ; the first marriage took place on 7th December in north Calcutta.
So the enactment of the Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, was one of the major social changes in the 19th century in India. Since then many such laws have been enacted in the country to protect the integrity and modesty of the women. To meet our Jury, click here. This act also provided all the rights and inheritances to all the windows that they have had at the time of her first marriage.X mansion minecraft map
Home 20 Trending Quiz Feedback Add to home.It was the first major social reform legislation after the abolition of Sati by Lord William Bentinck. To protect what it considered family honour and family property, upper-caste Hindu society had long disallowed the remarriage of widows, even child and adolescent onesall of whom were expected to live a life of austerity and abnegation.
Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was the most prominent campaigner. He petitioned the Legislative council,  but there was a counter petition against the proposal with nearly four times more signatures by Radhakanta Deb and the Dharma Sabha. The preamble and sections 1, 2, and 5: . Whereas it is known that, by the law as administered in the Civil Courts established in the territories in the possession and under the Government of the East India Company, Hindu widows with certain exceptions are held to be, by reason of their having been once married, incapable of contracting a second valid marriage, and the offsprings of such widows by any second marriage are held to be illegitimate and incapable of inheriting property; and.
Whereas many Hindus believe that this imputed legal incapacity, although it is in accordance with established custom, is not in accordance with a true interpretation of the precepts of their religion, and desire that the civil law administered by the Courts of Justice shall no longer prevent those Hindus who may he so minded from adopting a different custom, in accordance with the dictates of their own conscience, and.
Where it is just to relieve all such Hindus from this legal incapacity of which they complain, and the removal of all legal obstacles to the marriage of Hindu widows will tend to the promotion of good morals and to the public welfare.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, A Hindu widow in India seen in this engraving from — was not allowed to wear a blouse or choli under her sari. The sari was required to be of coarse cloth, preferably white.
Irrevocably, eternally married as a mere child, the death of the husband she had perhaps never known left the wife a widow, an inauspicious being whose sins in a previous life had deprived her of her husband, and her parents-in-law of their son, in this one.
Doomed to a life of prayer, fasting, and drudgery, unwelcome at the celebrations and auspicious occasions that are so much a part of Hindu family and community life, her lot was scarcely to be envied.Glen ridge urban dictionary
On the other hand, the lower, particularly Sudra, castes and the so-called 'Un-touchables'—who represented approximately 80 percent of the Hindu population—neither practised child marriage nor prohibited the remarriage of widows.
Hindu Woman and Her Future. New Book Company. Retrieved 16 December The East India Company and Religion, Boydell Press. Sunthankar Nineteenth Century History of Maharashtra: Shubhada-Saraswat Prakashan. Modern Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Retrieved 17 December Riddick Greenwood Publishing Group. Orient Blackswan. Ghosal To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Editor BORJ. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. She could only eat nearly half of population of the country is vegetarian food. Widow re-marriage was not so good and the position of widow is not permitted among Hindus, except in even worse. In order to save the plight of certain tribal communities.
Widows are considered to be a legislation of widow remarriage in marginalized group in India because they India, Hindu society had many reservations occupy a ver y lo w social status in society. The Brahmos campaigned Consequently they have to face severe against such prejudices.
To reinforce their social, economic and cultural deprivations. Besides championing kin group and with the community. If such the cause of widows the Brahmo Samaj new relationships appear difficult to also came to the aid of unmarried women emerge, wido ws often have to take refuge as well. It was not just the lo wer castes in charitable houses or ashrams and stay who suffered in the caste system.
Despite away from their families. If a suitable bridegroom could despite their rights in law, which are rarely not be found for such a girl in their caste, exercised in practice. These taboo in India.
Widow remarriage among girls often found themselves being married the Hindus is not common.
Problems Of Widow Remarriage In India: A Study
People off to very old men who were already marrying widows are considered to be of married several times over. Or worse still, inferior status. Despite best efforts made sometimes these girls would be poisoned by the Ar ya Samaj in the field there has no to death.
Again the Brahmos campaigned perceptible progress. Among the Scheduled against such unjust practices and saved the Castes widow remarriage is performed not lives of many such girls. Amongst the Sikh Jats wido ws were not permitted to attend festive are remarried to their dewar or jeth.
It was very common popular. Christians and Muslims, ho wever, for the mother-in-law to taunt her as being remarry widows. T he death There has never been a total ban on wido w of the husband was only the beginning of a remarriage in India as often assumed.
She was either Anthropological studies have given ample expected to commit sati or return to her evidence that in all non-brahmins, i.
It is said that young virgin was ill treated and not allowed to eat properly. Her head was shaved, her glass 1 Alka Ranjan, Determinates of Well Being bangles broken and she was confined to Widows, Economic and Political Weekly, white clothes; never being allowed to look The second, currently most was fairly satisfactory. Ordinarily girls influential in the scientific literature, is were less welcome than boys, but there that widow remarriage is widely practiced.
The main disabilities, prevalent among tribal communities from which wo men suffered in this age, though it was not permitted among higher were proprietary ones. They could neither caste groups. In fact, in tribal hold nor inherit property. In certain communities, for position of wo men.Retrieved 2 June 2016.
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